Arc Stud Welding Equipment Explained

Arc Stud Welding Equipment Explained

Arc stud welding equipment consists of three main components: the welding power supply, control system, and welding torch, as shown in Figure 7-11.

Power Supply

Similar to shielded metal arc welding, to attain a stable arc process, arc stud welding utilizes a falling characteristic DC power supply, which should have good dynamic characteristics. Although the load duty cycle is only 10% (compared to 60% in shielded metal arc welding), the power supply capacity is much larger than that for shielded metal arc welding.

This is because the commonly used studs have diameters of 6~30mm, which are larger than the diameter of welding rods, and the selected current density is high, requiring a higher open-circuit voltage.

The welding current for shielded metal arc welding is selected based on 30~50 times the diameter of the welding rod, while for arc stud welding, it is determined by 50~100 times the diameter of the stud. Therefore, the output current of arc stud welding power supply can usually reach several thousand amps.

Only when welding small diameter studs can a suitable shielded metal arc welding power supply be chosen; typically, specialized equipment is used.

Figure 7-11 Arc Stud Welding Equipment

Control System

The difference between arc stud welding and shielded metal arc welding is that there is no open-circuit process during welding. The four actions of short-circuit pre-pressure, arc welding, stud fall, and electrifying maintenance are preset by the control system before welding and are automatically completed by the welding torch.

Figure 7-12 shows a schematic diagram of the control system for typical arc stud welding equipment.Figure 7-13 shows a time sequence diagram of the output voltage, current, and stud displacement during arc stud welding.

Figure 7-12 Schematic Diagram of Arc Stud Welding Equipment Control System
Figure 7-13 Time Sequence Diagram of Arc Stud Welding Output Voltage, Current, and Stud Displacement

① Short circuit
② Lift arc welding
③ Fall stud
④ Electric forging
⑤ Welding ends

Typically, the control system and welding power supply for arc stud welding are installed in the same box.

Welding Torch

The welding torch is the actuator of the stud welding equipment, and it comes in two types: handheld and fixed. The handheld welding torch is more common and convenient, while the fixed welding torch is specifically designed for certain products and is fixed on a support to complete stud welding at a certain workstation. The working principles of the two types of welding torches are the same.

The mechanical part of the welding torch consists of a clamping mechanism, electromagnetic lifting mechanism, and spring pressure mechanism. If argon gas is used for protection, there should also be a gas nozzle and gas path. The electrical part consists of a welding switch, electromagnet, and welding cable.

Adjustable parameters on the torch include the stud lifting height, the extension length of the screw, and the coaxiality between the stud and the collar chuck. The stud lift is achieved through an electromagnetic coil, and the spring can press the stud into the weld pool to complete welding.

Sometimes, to slow down the stud pressing speed and reduce welding spatter, the torch is equipped with a damping mechanism. Figure 7-14 shows a schematic diagram of the structure of an arc stud welding torch, and Figure 7-15 shows a photo of the outer shape of an arc stud welding torch.Table 7-6 lists the main technical parameters of some domestically produced arc stud welding machines.

Figure 7-14 Schematic Diagram of Arc Stud Welding Torch Structure

1— Chuck
2— Spring
3— Iron Core
4— Electromagnetic Coil
5— Torch Body
6— Welding Cable
7— Control Wire
8 —Button
9— Rod
10— Foot Cover

Figure 7-15 Photo of Arc Stud Welding Torch

Table 7-6 Main Technical Parameters of Some Arc Stud Welding Machines

CategorySilicon Controlled RectifierSilicon Controlled RectifierSilicon Controlled RectifierSilicon Controlled Rectifier
Power Supply380V,50Hz380V,50Hz380V,50Hz380V,50/60Hz380V,50/60Hz380V,50/60Hz380V,50/60Hz
Input Capacity
No-Load Voltage
Load Duration
Rated Welding Current
Welding Time Range
Stud Diameter
Stud Length
(Length x Width x Height)/(mm x mm x mm)

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